Wheat cultivation ppt | Top 5 easy Management of pest & disease

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Wheat cultivation

(wheat cultivation, wheat crop cultivation, Origin, Geographical Distribution, Economic importance, species, soil condition, Climate, Morphology, GROWTH STAGES, Field Preparation, NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, SOWING, Method of sowing, Water management, WEED MANAGEMENT, Intercultural Operation, Disease Management, Harvesting, YIELD)

Wheat Cultivation ppt

General information of Wheat Cultivation 

Table of Contents

SPECIES UNDER CULTIVATION :
Triticum aestivum ( BREAD WHEAT )
Triticum durum ( MARCONI WHEAT )
Triticum dicoccum ( EMMER WHEAT )

HEADQUARTERS OF WHEAT

International Maize And Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) – MEXICO
Indian Institute Of Wheat And Barley Research – Karnal (Haryana)
ICAR – AICRPs- BTC Cars, Bilaspur CHHATTISGARH

Directorate of wheat Research, Karnal

  • IT IS A SELF-POLLINATED SPECIES.
  • LONG DAY PLANT.
  • DWARF VARIETY WAS INTRODUCED IN INDIA – IN 1963 CALLED MEXICAN DWARF WHEAT.
  • TRIPLE DWARF VARIETY OF WHEAT – 1970
  • PROTEIN – GLUTEN(11-12%)
  • Test weight-40g

ORIGIN Of WHEAT

Wheat
Botanical Name  Triticum aestivum
Family Gramineae / Poaceae
Origin South Western Asia

Note- It is believed that Aryans brought wheat grains to India, since then it has been cultivated in India.

Geographical distribution of Wheat Cultivation

Area of Wheat Cultivation 

Area In Global(2018-19) Area In National(2018-19) Area In-State (2018-19)
India (29.58)
Russia (27.34)
China (24.51)
TOTAL (215 MILLION HA.)
UP(9.54)
MP(5.52)
Punjab(3.52)
Haryana(2.55)
TOTAL(29.14 MILLION HA.)
Bemetara(17.38)
Rajnandgaon(16.30)
Balarampur(3.95)
TOTAL(166.33’000HA)

 

Production of Wheat cultivation

Production In Global(2018-19) Production In National(2018-19) Production In-State (2018-19)
China (133.6)
India (103.6)
Russia (74.5)
TOTAL(730.9 MILLION TONNES)
UP(32.75)
Punjab(18.24)
MP(15.47)
Haryana(12.57)
TOTAL(102.19MILLION TONNES)
Bemetara(16.08)
Rajnandgaon(16.18)
Balarampur(13.94)
TOTAL(153.32’000TON)

 

Productivity of Wheat cultivation

Productivity In Global(2018-19) Productivity In National(2018-19) Productivity In-State (2018-19)
China(5.45)
India(3.5)
Russia(2.72)
TOTAL(3.39 TONNES/HA.)
Punjab(5.18)
Haryana(4.9)
UP(3.43)
MP(2.8)
TOTAL(3.5TONNES/HA.)
Jagdalpur(2467)
Dentewada(2000)
Kondagaon(1923)
TOTAL(1672KG/HA.)

 

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WHEAT CULTIVATION

  • In India, wheat cultivation second most important staple food crop after rice.
  • GRAIN-Wheat grain flour is used in form of chapati, puri, bread, cake, sweetmeats, etc.
  • Wheat grain contains 11.2% protein which is more than other cereals.
  • Wheat provides the characteristic substance “Gluten” which is very essential for bakers.
  • STRAW-it is also used in paper industries and for making temporary huts and roofs.
  • The bran, husk, and other portion of grain and straw are available to feed for livestock.
  • Wheat straw is also a good source of bedding material for livestock.
  • The ripe un-threshed ear heads are used to make decorative items

Species Of Wheat

They are a total of 18 species of wheat introduced by scientists. But only
3 species are cultivated in our country as follows –

1. Triticum aestivum 2. Triticum durum 3. Triticum dicoccum

Triticum aestivum (Common Bread Wheat)

  • Its hexaploids, 2n = 42( important species but mostly grown in India)
    GLUTEN – 11%
  • Occupying about 87% of the wheat area. It is good for chapati making & bakery products.
  • Introduced in India by Dr. N.E. Borloug from Mexico (CIMMYT) hence called Mexican dwarf wheat.

Triticum durum ( Durum / Marconi wheat

  • Tetraploids, 2n =28.
  • GLUTEN – 12%
  • Use in suji, pasta, and vermicelli preparation.
  • This occupies about 12% of the wheat area, particularly in CENTRAL And PENINSULAR (southern) India.

Triticum diccocum ( Emmer wheat )

  • Tetraploids, 2n =28.
  • GLUTEN – 13%
  • Occupies about 1% of the total area of wheat and are confined to Gujrat, Maharastra, A.P, KN & TN.
  • Suitable for preparation of south Indian dish “ uppumav.”
  • More heat tolerant than Triticum aestivum , Triticum durum.

VARIETIES OF WHEAT

Developed Varieties by IGKV Raipur

wheat cultivation period

NAME OF VARIETY

RELEASE YEAR

 DURATION

  Avg. YIELD

  (Q/ha.)

     SALIENT    FEATURES

Ratan (C.G. 5016)

   2009

    110-115

   34.8 – 41.4

Sarbati, shiny, R- black & brown Rust, drought 

Arpa ( C.G. 5011)

   2008

    110-112

      20-25

R- black & brown Rust

Chhattisgarh genhu-3

(C.G. 1013)

 

   2018

    120-125

      30-35

R- black & brown Rust

Chhattisgarh genhu-4

(C.G. 1015)

   2017

    120-125

   53.3 – 68.8

R- black & brown Rust

Chhattisgarh Amber

( C.G. 1018)

   2018

    120-125

       30-35

Excellent chapati making quality

R- rust & karnal bunt

  Kanishka 

 ( C.G. 1029)

 2018-19

    120-125

       50-55

Excellent chapati making quality

R- black & brown Rust

C.G. Hansa genhu

( C.G. 1023)

 2016-17

    120-125

        40-45

R- black, yellow & brown Rust

Biofortified variety

    RECOMMENDED FOR C.G. 

 

       VARIETY

DURATION

 YIELD  (Q/ha.)

         SALIENT    FEATURES

          H.W. 2004

     130-135

    15-20

 Sarbati, Narrow granule, Medium plant   height(95 cm.)

           Lok – 1 

    100-105

    15-20

  Coars & shiny grain, Short duration

            Sujata

    130-135

    18-22

Sarbati, Big & shiny grain, Rust sensitive

         H.I. – 1500

    120-125

    20-25

High yielding variety, sarbati grainule

        G.W. – 273

     115-120

    40-50

  Semi dwarf, R- Rust, 96cm height 

        D.L.8033(Kanchan)

     115-120

    35-40

       Sarbati, Medium height

       G.W. – 322

     120-125

     38-40

Sarbati,  Medium size grain, R- Rust

       M.P. – 4010

     105-110

     30-35

Sarbati, MR- Rust, Smut, Early maturity

   D.L.- 788-2 (vidisha)

     105-110

     30-35

Dwarf variety, Medium duration, Bold grain

          G.W. – 173

     105-110

    30-35

Dwarf variety, Medium duration, Bold grain

Durum species

 

    

    VARIETY

  DURATION

    YIELD 

   (Q/ha.)

         

  SALIENT    FEATURES

     H.D. – 4672

     120-125

    20-25

        Dwarf, Sarbati grain. Old variety

     H.I. – 8498

     115-120

   40-45

             Semi-dwarf, MR- smut 

     H.I. – 8381

     120-125

   40-45

        Semi-dwarf, Bold shiny Grains.

     H.I. – 8627

     110-115

    20-25

          High yielding variety

     H.I. – 8713

     115-117

   40-42

      Sarbati grains, Medium size, R- Rust

     M.P. – 1215

     117-119

   38-40

          Medium plant hieght, , R- Rust

Aestivum species

 

VARIETY

   DURATION

       YIELD

      (q/ha.)

    SALIENT    FEATURES

     H.I. – 1531

      115-120

        21-22

          High yielding  variety 

    G.W. – 366

      120-125

       40-45

          High yielding  variety 

    H.I. – 1544

      120-125

       40-45

          High yielding  variety 

    M.P. – 3336

      105-108

       35-40

Sarbati, shiny, medium size, R- Rust

    M.P. – 1203

      120-125

       35-40

 late flowering,  medium Grain

    H.D. – 2932

      111-115

       35-37

High yielding  variety 

    H.D. – 2864

      105 – 110

       30-35

Sarbati, MR- Rust & smut, early mature, plant height- 83cm.

  •  Improved Rainfed Wheat Varieties:-

    N-59 , MACS-9 , MACS-1967, NIDW-15(durum type), Ajantha, NI-5439, Heera, Moti etc.

  •  Improved Irrigated wheat Varieties:-

 Kalyan sona, sonalika, Malvika, Lok-1, HD-21889, PBN-142, PBN-51 etc.

SOIL CONDITION for Wheat Cultivation

Wheat is grown in a variety of soils in India. Well-drained loam and clay loams are good for wheat. However good crop of wheat is raised in sandy loams and black soils also. Soils should be neutral in reaction. Heavy soils with good drainage are suitable for wheat cultivation under dry conditions.

  •  pH  :-   5.0 – 7.5 
  • TEXTURE: – loam and clay loams
  • STRUCTURE: crumby 
  • BULK DENSITY :- 1.33 – 1.5  g/cm3           
  • WHC:- Moderate water holding capacity is ideal for wheat cultivation.
  • SOIL DEPTH – 60-70CM

CLIMATE for Wheat Cultivation

  • It is a long day plant with wider adaptability.
  • Prefer areas with COOL & MOIST weather during GROWING PERIOD followed by DRY & WARM weather during MATURITY.
  • The optimum temperature range for IDEAL GERMINATION is 20-25 degrees Celsius.
  •  TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT AT DIFFERENT STAGES

                              GERMINATION                        20-25 C

                              VEGETATIVE GROWTH            16-22 C

                              PROPER GRAIN FILLING          23-25 C

  • The temperature at the time of GRAIN FILLING AND GRAIN DEVELOPMENT IS 25 DEGREE CELSIUS. Temperature above 25 C during this period tends to depress grain weight due to hastened maturity.
  • Temperature more than 35^C is NOT SUITABLE for wheat, the endosperm may undergo decomposition due to the activities of soil microbes.
  • Wheat can also germinate at 4^C.
  • Cloudy weather, with high humidity and low temperature, is conducive for a RUST attack.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY for crop growth is 50-60% . But at the time of maturity crop requires less humidity.

ANNUAL RAINFALL required is 750-1000mm.

LIGHT INTENSITY: REQUIRES 8 HOURS OF SUNSHINE PER DAY.
SHORT DAYS INCREASE THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH WHEREAS LONG DAY HASTENS THE FORMATION OF INFLORESCENCE.

MORPHOLOGY OF WHEAT


1. ROOT: The plant contains two sets of roots that is SEMINAL ROOTS-used by seedlings to absorb nutrients & CLONAL ROOTS which arise from the lower nodes of the shoot forming the permanent root system.

2. STEM: Erect 30-120cm in height, cylindrical, elongated stem with internodes called CULM. The shoot is terminated by an ear or spike bearing about 20 spikelets.

3. TILLERS: Lateral branches having the same basic structure as the main shoot, arise from the AXILS OF BASAL LEAVES. At anthesis, some tillers develop to form an EAR.

4. LEAVES: Simple, alternate, claw-shaped, Parallel venation tapering towards tip having a sheath, blade. At the junction of sheath & blade is membranous structure LIGULE, and a pair of small, hairy projections AURICLES.

5. INFLORESCENCE: SPIKE OF SPIKELETS CONTAINING 15-20 SPIKELETS.

6. GRAIN: CARYOPSIS. GRAIN CONSISTS OF EMBRYO, BRAN, AND ENDOSPERM.


MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AND BARLEY

PARTICULARS

    WHEAT

   BARLEY

LEAF-BLADE

SHORT

LONG

LEAF-SHEATH

GREEN

Hairy

PURPLE

Glabrous

AURICLES 

SHORTER with small hairs

  LONGER and has no hairs.

AWN or WHEAT BEARD

SHORT

LONG

  • BOOTING STAGE is also called PANICAL INITIATION STAGE(PI). In this stage, the PANCIAL IS COVERED and the LEAVES appears to be SWALLOW called FLAG LEAF.
    IN HEADING STAGE PANICAL EMERGES out of the LEAF.

GROWTH STAGES OF WHEAT

VEGETATIVE STAGES:

GERMINATION: 5-7DAS
CRI: 20-25DAS (the 3-4leaf stage when crown root appears)
TILLERING: 45DAS( BUD PRIMORDIA DEVELOPS INTO TILLERS)
JOINTING: 45-60DAS (PEAK PLANT GROWTH)
(INTERNODE ELONGATION PERIOD)

REPRODUCTIVE STAGES:

BOOTING: 70-85DAS (The head of the wheat plant grows from the top of the stem and has the last leaf wrapped around it called FLAG LEAF.)
FLOWERING: 85-90DAS ( anthesis of florets and fertilization)
MILKING : 100-105DAS (Kernel formation stage)
DOUGH: 105-110 (Physiological maturity i.e. maximum dry weight with 30%moisture)
MATURITY: 115-120 ( 13% moisture)

Field Preparation for Wheat Cultivation

Land selection and preparation for wheat cultivation –
CULTIVATION-

  • Generally, wheat can be cultivated easily in each type of land but loamy soil is best for its growth
  • Along with this, proper arrangement of drainage is also necessary in the land.
  • Special care should be taken that the land is not acidic and alkaline.
  • It can also be grown easily in black soil.
  • The soil having pH 5-7 is considered good for its cultivation.
  • During land preparation, one ploughing should be done with MB plow and 2-3 ploughing with harrow or cultivator.
  • After this, the land should be leveled after every ploughing. *(When preparing the field, apply enough cow dung in the soil).
  • Moisture in the land is also very important for its cultivation.

Number of passes

Plough twice with an iron plough and two to three times with a cultivator and prepare the land to a fine tilth.

Seed Bed Requirement

  1. The wheat crop requires well pulverized but compact seedbed for good and uniform germination.
  2. The seedbed should not be cloudy or dusty.
  3. Preparatory tillage operations varies with type of cultivation i.e., whether grown as a rainfed or irrigated crop.

Forming Beds and Channels

Form beds of size 10 m2 or 20 m2.
The irrigation channels are to be provided sufficiently.

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT For WHEAT CULTIVATION

Manure(Organic) & Fertilizer(Inorganic)

  1. Generally, manure and fertilizer should be used after soil testing in soil.
  2. According to timely sowing crop, 120 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus & 40 kg potash per hectare is sufficient i.e., N:P: K should be 120:60:40 Kg/ha.
  3. If it’s late in sowing and in areas with low water availability, then N:P: K 70-80:50-60:40 kg/ hectare.
  4. For the good growth of this crop, cow dung manure should be used at the rate of 6 tons per hectare.
  5. Half the amount of nitrogen, the full amount of phosphorus & potash, and the full amount of cow dung should be used by mixing it in the field while preparing the field or at the last ploughing.
  6. Divide the remaining amount of nitrogen into two parts and use it after first irrigation (20-25 days) and after second irrigation (40-45 days).
  7. If there is a deficiency of sulfur in the field, sulfur-containing fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate or single super sulfate should be used.
  8. Spraying should always be done in clear weather and sunlight.

9. If green manure of Dhaincha is used before the wheat crop, about 50-60 kg per hectare of nitrogen is saved.

  1. Thus by managing fertilizer and manure, crop yield also increases and soil fertility also improves.

Nutrient Requirements for wheat cultivation

Wheat nutrient requirements vary depending on the crop growth stage.

Roles of nutrients at different growth stages

Establishment-

  1. Nitrogen for early rapid growth.
  2. Phosphate supplies the energy for early growth and development, especially root mass.

Tillering-

  1. Nitrogen for leaf development and size, increasing tiller number per plant.
  2. Manganese for its role in the structure of photosynthetic proteins and enzymes.

Stem Extension-

  1. Nitrogen, for large leaves, rapid growth and development.
  2. Phosphate, to supply the energy for growth and development.
  3. Potassium, for plant water regulation and structural integrity.
  4. Sulphur for yield and quality improvements.
  5. Manganese, for its role in the structure of photosynthetic proteins and enzymes.
  6. Zinc, for enzyme reactions, nitrogen metabolism, and protein synthesis

Flag Leaf and Grain Filling-

  1. Nitrogen, for higher yields through green leaf duration, grain site survival, grain size, and protein levels.
  2. Magnesium, for green leaf duration.
  3. Phosphate, for dry matter remobilization for yield improvements.
    Boron, for pollen viability.

BIO-FERTILIZER for Wheat Cultivation 

Bio-fertilizer is a large population of specific or group of beneficial micro-organisms for enhancing the productivity of the soil.

Name of biofertilizers

  1. Bacterial Biofertilizers: e.g. Rhizobium, Azospirilium, Azotobacter, Phosphobacteria.
  2. Fungal Biofertilizers: e.g.
  3. MycorhizaAlgal Biofertilizers: e.g. Blue-Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla.
  4. Actinomycetes Biofertilizer: e.g. Frankia.

Application of bio-fertilizer to crop –

There are four types of methods for the application of biofertilizers-

1. Seed treatment 2. Set treatment

3. Seedling treatment 4. Soil treatment

When should we apply biofertilizers-

Azotobacter is used for seedling root dip, particularly for wheat.
4 Kg each of recommended biofertilizers is mixed in 200 Kg of compost and kept overnight.
This mixture is incorporated in the soil at the time of sowing or planting.
The inoculum should be applied 2-3 cm below the soil at the time of sowing.

Benefits of biofertilizers

  1. Bio-fertilizers are living microorganisms of bacterial, fungal, and algal origin.
  2. Biofertilizers fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and root nodules of legume crops and make it available to the plant.
  3. They solubilize the insoluble forms of phosphates like tricalcium, iron, and aluminium phosphates into available forms.
  4. They produce hormones and antimetabolites which promote root growth.
  5. They decompose organic matter and help in mineralization in soil.
  6. When applied to seed or soil, biofertilizers increase the availability of nutrients and improve the yield by 10 to 25% without adversely affecting the soil and environment.

SOWING OF WHEAT CULTIVATION 

  • Selection of seed – ( Certified seed )
  • CRITERIA FOR OWN SEED: fully mature, uniform size, good germination quality, and
  • colour should be free from other seeds, stones, debris, etc.
  • Seed quality is determined by the following characteristics;
  • Physical Attributes
  • Physiological Attributes
  • Genetic Attributes
  • Storability

A seed rate for Wheat Cultivation


In RAINFED conditions- 100-125KG/HECTARE
Under IRRIGATED conditions- 80-100KG/HECTARE
Under LATE SOWN conditions- 125-150KG/HECTARE
(i.e. 25% more than the normal sown as due to delayed sowing tillering capacity decreases, so to maintain plant population more seed is applied.)

Spacing Of Wheat cultivation 

IRRIGATED CONDITION- spacing of 22.5CM between ROWS and 8-10CM between plants.
RAINFED CONDITION- spacing of 25-30CM between ROWS and 5-6CM between plants.

Depth for Wheat Cultivation

4 TO 5 CM in the soil.
In SEMI DWARF CROPS- 5 TO 6 CM

Method of sowing for Wheat Cultivation

There are six methods:
1)Broadcasting
2)Behind the plough
3)Line sowing
4)Drilling
5)Dibbling
6) FIBR (furrow irrigated raised bed)- this is considered the best method for the wheat crop as it has the following advantages:

  • Requires less water than a flatbed.
  • It has better drainage.

Time of sowing of Wheat

Time of sowing is one of the important aspects for obtaining a good yield of wheat it depends mostly on soil temperature, irrigation facilities, and duration of the varieties.

Seed treatment for Wheat Cultivation

Seeds should be treated with 2-3gm carbendazim per kg of seeds for controlling soil-borne diseases like root rot and seedling root.
Plant population/ha. under the different conditions:-
Plant population 0.175 to 0.2 million/ha is optimum for obtaining higher yields.
IRRIGATED- 444444.4PLANTS/Ha
RAINFED – 4lakh plants/ha

Water management For Wheat Cultivation

Total water requirement (mm) – 450mm /460mm
1500 mm ( Approx) of water is required to produce 1 kg of dry matter of wheat.

SCHEDULING OF IRRIGATION:

On the basis of:-
IW/CPU RATIO – 0.7 to 0.9
TIME INTERVAL :
Generally, the wheat crop requires 4-5 irrigation.
FIRST irrigation 20-25 days after sowing (Crown root initiation stage).
SECOND Irrigation 40-45 days after sowing (tillering stage).
THIRD Irrigation 70-75 days after sowing (late jointing stage).
FOURTH Irrigation 90-95 days of sowing (flowering stage).
FIFTH Irrigation after 110-115 days of sowing (dough stage)

6 CRITICAL STAGES of WHeat Cultivation

There are 6 critical stages with respect to water-

  • Crown root initiation stage(20-21das)
  • Tillering stage(42das)
  • Jointing stage (60das)
  • Flowering stage(80das)
  • Milking stage(95das)
  • Dough stage(115das)

 

NO. OF IRRIGATION AVAILABLE

CRITICAL STAGES

1

CRI

2

CRI+F

3

CRI+LJ+M

4

CRI+T+F+M

5

EXCEPT DOUGH STAGE

6

ALL STAGES


METHOD OF IRRIGATION:

BORDER STRIP METHOD is the most commonly adopted method of irrigation followed by CHECK BASIN METHOD.
SPRINKLER METHOD is also used in wheat crops, especially on light soils having sand-dunes, where border strip or even check basin is not possible.
DRAINAGE:-

  • Adequate drainage is a requirement for achieving a crop’s production potential.
  • This is especially true for wheat since it is grown during the months that generally receive the highest rainfall. This rainfall can be beneficial to the crop if good drainage is provided.
  • Drain furrows are commonly used to improve a field’s surface drainage.

WEED MANAGEMENT OF WHEAT Cultivation

Growth and yield losses in wheat due to Different weed densities

Weed densities tested were: weedy check (control), wheat + Natural weeds (weedy for full season), wheat + mixed weeds (Chenopodium album, Melilotus alba, Avena fatua, Phalaris minor) (2:1), wheat + Chenopodium album (2:1), wheat + Melilotus alba (2:1), wheat + Avena fatua (2:1) and wheat + Phalaris minor (2:1). Among the tested weed densities, Chenopodium album, Avena fatua, Phalaris minor, and Melilotus alba were found common and serious weeds in wheat crop and reduced the tillers production, height of plants, seed index, wheat biomass, and grain yield

The critical period of crop Weed Competition:- 30-45 days.

 

Botanical name

Common English name

Family

Life cycle

Chenopodium album

Lambsquarter 

Chenopodiaceae

Annual

Fumaria parviflora 

Fumitory

Papaveraceae

Annual

Vicia sativa 

Vetch 

Fabaceae

Annual

Anagallis arvensis 

Pimpernel

Primulaceae

Annual

Lathyrus aphaca

Yellow Vetching 

Fabaceae

Annual

Rumwex denticulata

Prickly dock 

Polygonaceae

Annual

Cichorium intybus

Chicory 

Asteraceae

Annual

Convolvulus arvensis

Field bind Weed

Convolvulaceae

Annual

Phalaris minor

Canary grass

Fabaceae

Annual

Weed management For Wheat Cultivation 

Weed management practices In Wheat cultivation:-
various practices Of weed management can be grouped into three broad categories namely cultural and privative; Physical or chemical and chemical weed control these practices are discussed below;

  1. Cultural control
  2. Mechanical control
  3. Chemical control
  4. Preventive control.

1. Cultural control

Cultural practices such as time and method of sowing, crop density, and geometry, crop varieties, dose, method and time of fertilizer application, time and method of irrigation have pronounced effects on crop- weed interference. Some of these factors are listed below:-

  • Use clean wheat seed that is free from wheat seed.
  • go in for an early showing of wheat.
  • Adopt closer row spacing.
  • Adopt criss-cross Showing to increase the Population density of the wheat plants.
  • Place basal dose of fertilizer 2-3 cm below the seed.
  • Showing of wheat on FIRBS reduces Weed population.
  1. Mechanical Control

It involves the removal of Weeds by Various tools as implements including hand Weeding s Pulling. It is not feasible where weeds Resemble morphological to crop ego Phalaris minor s Avena Ludoviciana before flowering in wheat. Also, mechanical Weed control becomes difficult In broadcast show wheat. Howe ever mechanical control can be Practiced effectively When wheat is Sown on FIRBS as the system facilities tractor-mounted implements use.

  1. Chemical control

Chemical weed control is preferred because of less labour involvement and no chemical damage to the crop that happens during the manual wedding. Moreover, the control is more effective as the weeds even within the rows are Killed which invariable escape because of morphological similarity to wheat, during mechanical control.

Chemical control Table

 

Herbicides

Dose(g/ha)

Time of application

Weeds control

2,4-D

500-800

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

  • Bathua 
  • Motha
  • Kasni

Sulfosulfuron

25

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Broad-leaved 

And grasses 

Clodinofop- Propagyl

60

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Grasses

Fenoxaprop 

100 

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Wild oat and phalaris minor

Metsulfuron Methyl 

40 

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Broad-leaved Weeds

Pinoxaden

60 

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Phalaris minor s wild oat

Isoproturon

750-1000

Post-emergence

(25-30day)

Grasses and some broad leaved

 

  1. Preventive method

1. Crop rotation
Differentiation of crops grown over time on the same field is a well-known primary means of preventive weed control. Different crops obviously bring about different cultural practices, which act as a factor in disrupting the growing cycle of weeds and, as such, preventing selection of the flora towards an increased abundance of problem species.

2. Cover crops (used as green manures or dead mulches)
Cover crops do not give a marketable yield but, by extending the period in which the soil remains covered by vegetation, exert a series of beneficial effects on the agro-ecosystem, such as optimization of natural resource use (solar radiation, water, soil nutrients), reduced water runoff, nutrient leaching, and soil erosion, and, last but not least, weed suppression.

3. TILLAGE SYSTEMS
The effect of primary tillage on weeds is mainly related to the type of implement used and to tillage depth. These factors considerably influence weed seed and propagule distribution over the soil profile and therefore they directly affect the number of weeds that can emerge in a field.

4. SEEDBED PREPARATION
Cultivation for seedbed preparation has two contrasting effects on weeds:
(i) it eliminates the emerged vegetation resulting from after primary tillage;
(ii) it stimulates weed seed germination and consequent seedling emergence, soil mixing, and reallocation of seeds towards shallower soil layers.

5. soil solarization.
High soil temperature, if lasting long enough, is able to kill the reproductive structures of pests, diseases, and weeds. Solarization can be defined as a soil disinfection method that exploits the solar energy available during the warmest period of the year.

6. MANAGEMENT OF DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
Careful choice and maintenance of drainage and irrigation systems is an important preventive measure to reduce on-field weed infestation. Periodical clearance of weed vegetation established along ditches prevents it from invading the field. Where it is economically feasible, the substitution of ditches with subterranean drains eliminates a potential source of weed infestation.

7. CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT
Cultivation of crop residues stimulates weed seed germination and emergence and hence is positive because it depletes their seed bank. However, care should be taken to prevent the emerged weeds from setting seeds, thus replenishing soil seed reserves. Stubble cultivation can be negative in environments characterized by high mineralization rates of soil organic matter.

Intercultural Operation for  Wheat Cultivation 

The prescribed schedule of all intercultural operations such as wedding hoeing, topping, nipping of buds, pruning, shading and earthing up, etc. Must be ahead to in a manner to optimize the overall productivity.

Intercultural equipment

All the lighter and finner operations carried out on the soil between showing had harvesting are termed as intercultural operations. They include wedding fertilizer application, mulching, etc.
1. Weeders:——-
Hand hoe:-
: this is a wedding tool used widely in most farms to carry out the wedding operation and also as a harvesting tool to bring the produce from inside the root zone.
: This tool has a short Handel made of country wood and a small shovel attached at its end.
: the width of the cut is not a standard one and depends on the village artisan
Who makes it and the demand of the farmer who uses it.

  1. Long-handled weeders:-
    The druggery to the human is more and the working efficiency is low with the handheld hoes which makes the operator bend / sit down Work one the soil.
    To reduce this problem long-handled weeders were developed. some of the long-handled weeders are long-handled, paddy weeders, star type, and peg type dry land weeders.
    A. Long handled hoe
    B.Paddy weeder
    C. Dry land / Garden land weeders
  2. Sweep:– the sweep consists of V-shaped shovels with bevel-edged wings. Shovels are held by tynes fixed to a framework by means of clamps. By just skimming under the soil at a shallow depth of 2 to 3 cm, The sweep breaks the continuity of proper and provides a good soil mulch.
    – During intercultural operation the spacing can be adjusted to cut the row spacing.
    – The sweep consists of ‘V-shaped shovels with bevel-edged wings. The shovels are held by the Haynes fixed to a framework by means of Countersunk bolts nuts.

Pest Management of Wheat Cultivation

Aphid (Macrosiphum miscanthi)

ETL- 5 per ear head
Yield loss- 50%
Stage of Damage- nymphs and adults

SYMPTOMS
Damaged leaves will often appear slightly curled or speckled at worst.
Plants may be stunted and tillers may lie parallel to the ground.

CONTROL
Avoid late sowing and excess use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
Treat the seed with Endosulfan 35EC 4ml/kg of seed.
3) Foliar spray of imidacloprid 17 SL @20g/ha at the start of the aphid colonization be given.

2)Army Worm( Myth Emna seprata)

ETL- 4-5 larvae per meter row length
Yield Loss- 30-50%
Stage of Damage- larvae

SYMPTOMS
Complete defoliation of the wheat plant.
Awns are cut and completely eaten up.

CONTROL
Avoid late sowing and excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
Application of Quinalphos( 25% EC) at the rate of 400 g/ha OR Carbaryl ( 50 WP)at the rate of
2.5 kg/ha through Spraying during an infestation.

3) Stem Fly (Atherigona bituberculata)

ETL- 10 % Dead Hearts
Yield Loss- 15-30 %
Stage of Damage- Maggot

SYMPTOMS
The maggots bore into the shoot of young plants, a week after germination to about one month and as a result, the central shoot dries up resulting in dead hearts.
If it is a little later the mother plant may produce side tillers. But the tillers also may be attacked.
CONTROL
Practice deep summer ploughing to expose soil to solar radiation.
To avoid insect attack sowing should be done from mid-Nov to mid-Dec.
Spray Cypermethrin 50gm/ha repeat the spray after 15 days.

4) Termites ( Odontotermes obesus )

ETL- 10% damage
Yield Loss- 43-80 %

SYMPTOMS
Termites damage the wheat crop soon after sowing and near maturity. The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears.

CONTROL
1) Treat the seed @ 4 ml of chlorpyriphos 20 EC or 7ml of endosulfan 35 EC/kg of seed.
2) If the attack is noticed in the standing crop, dilute 2.5 L of endosulfan 35 EC in 5 L of water and mix it with 50 kg of soil and broadcast evenly in one hectare, followed by light irrigation.

Disease Management Of Wheat crop Cultivation

1) FOOT ROT ( Helminthosporium sativum )

Yield Loss- Up to 30%

SYMPTOMS
Dark brown patches appear on the collar portion.
Plants turn yellow and dry up.
MANAGEMENT
Cultural- Delayed sowing and heavy irrigation
Chemical- Treat the seeds with Carboxin or Carbendazim at 2g/kg.

2) LEAF BLIGHT ( Alternaria trticinia )

Yield Loss- 18-31 %
SYMPTOMS
The appearance of brown oval spots on leaves becomes irregular in advanced stages.
Black Powdery mass of conidia and conidiophore develop on the spot.
MANAGEMENT
Cultural- Avoid overhead irrigation, especially during cool, wet weather. Irrigate less frequently to keep relative humidity lower.
Chemical-
Treat the seeds with Vitavax@ 2.5g/kg seed.
The foliar sprays with propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC)@250g/ha beginning from the appearance of disease and later at 15 days intervals thrice.

3) RUST ( Puccinia recondita , P. striiformis , P. graminis )

Yield Loss- 15-30 %
SYMPTOMS
Brown rust- small, round-oval redial pustules of bright orange color develp maily on the leaves, may appear on sheath and stem as well.
Yellow rust- oval and lemon yellow pustules are seen.
Black rust- reddish-brown pustules seen on stems, leaf sheath, leaves
Management
Cultural- Growing of resistant variety like DBW 621-50, HD 2967, PBW 550( Yellow rust resistance)
Kundan, HD2329, Chhattisgarh genhu-3 and 4( Brown and Black rust resistance )
NP 809 (All 3 types of rust)

Chemical-
Seed treatment with Trichoderma viridae@ 4g/kg seed.
Spraying of triademefon ( 25 EC @ 0.1%) at yellow rust initiation thrice at an interval of 10-15 days

4) FLAG SMUT (Urocystis tritici )

Yield Loss- 40-50 %
SYMPTOMS
The seedling infection leads to twisting and drooping of leaves followed by withering.
Grey to greyish black sori occurs on leaf blade and sheath. The sorus contains a black powdery mass of spores.
MANAGEMENT
Cultural- Grow resistant varieties like Pusa 44 and WG 377.
Chemical- Treat the seeds with carboxin at 2g /kg.

5) Karnal bunt ( Neovossia indica )

Yield Loss- 15-20%
SYMPTOMS
A portion of infected grain along its groove is converted in a black powdery mass.
The black powder gives a foul smell due to presence of trimethylamine

MANAGEMENT
Cultural- Growing of karnal bunt resistant varieties( PBW 502 ).
Chemical- One spray of Propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) @2ml/ Ltr of water at ear head emergence stage.

Harvesting Of Wheat

Removal of the economic part of the plant at definite maturity is called as Harvesting.

The rain-fed crop reaches the harvest stage much earlier than the irrigated crop

Judging of Physiological Maturity

  •  Grain Moisture content = 15-20 %
  • Yellowing of the Spikelets( 80-90 % ) OR the plant turns golden yellow and becomes brittle.

True Maturity

  • Grains become hard and the straw becomes dry and brittle.

Method Of Harvesting

  • The harvesting can be done with the help of serrated sickle manually or with the help of bullock-drawn reapers. ( Near to the Ground )
  • Harvesting can also be done with the help combine  harvesters to avoid losses in grain yield due to shattering and lodging

DISADVANTAGES OF DELAY HARVESTING in Wheat cultivation 

Late harvest coupled with excessive rainfall means more time for late-season mold growth, mycotoxin accumulation, test weight reduction, and sprouting, all of which collectively could result in poor overall grain quality.
Decrease in Market Value

THRESHING

  • Done by power-operated threshers
  • By threading the head of the wheat with the bullock cart.
  • By beating them with the help of bamboo sticks.
  • By running the tractor over the heads.

WINNOWING

If the harvesting is done with the help of a combine harvester then there is no need for winnowing as the grain output is already in the form of winnowed and cleaned grain.
Winnowing can also be manual with the help of dropping the grains from a certain height so as to remove the impurities from the grain lot due to the motion of the wind current.
Winnowing can also be done by the power-operated winnowers.

YIELD OF WHEAT

Rainfed wheat – 15-20 q/ha
Irrigated wheat – 35-40 q/ha

Growth and yield attributing characters

  • No. of plant/m²
  • No. of productive tillers/plant
  • Total no. of grains/ear head
  • Test weight (1000 seed weight)

Estimation of Yield for Wheat cultivation

Area- 1ha
Spacing- 22 * 8 cm
No. of productive tillers/plant- 6
Total no. of grains/ear head-26
Test weight (1000 seed weight)-40 g

Estimated Yield=

Area(m2) * No. of productive tillers/plant * Total no. of(kg/ha)


grains/ear head * Test weight (g)  *Spacing(m) * 1000 * 1000


=

1oooo * 6 * 26 * 40


0.22 * 0.08 * 1000 * 1000


= 3545 kg/ha
= 35.45 q/ha or 3.5 t/ha

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