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Flower and their type according to sexuality

In this article, we are going to learn about types of flower according to sexuality, whorls, the relative position of the calyx, corolla, and androecium Gynoecium, internodal elongation plant and their type according to sexuality

Types Of  Flowers :-

Flower definition

  • A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with egg.
  • Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop.
  • A typical flower consists of the following parts-

.              I) Accessory whorls –    a) Calyx       b) Corolla

.              II) Reproductive whorls-  c) Androecium   d) Gynoecium

  • The individual units of Calyx are Sepals, of corolla petals. The term perianth is collectively used for undifferentiated Calyx and corolla, in which individual members are tepals. flower parts
  • Flower and their type according to sexuality
  • Androecium is the male whorl and each stamen is differentiated into filament, anther and connective.
  • Gynoecium is the female whorl and is differentiated into stigma, style and ovary.

TYPES OF FLOWERS ACCORDING TO SEXUALITY :-

  • A flower has two reproductive parts, androecium (male) and Gynoecium (female). So according to the presence of the reproductive organs, the flower is classified as-

1) UNISEXUAL TYPE OF FLOWER

  • The flower which bears either androecium or gynoecium is called a unisexual flower. It is of 2 types-

a)Staminate: A flower has only androecium(male part) e.g. Cucumber, Crysenthium, Holly etc.

b)Pistillate: the flower has only gynoecium(female part) e.g. Clematis, Begonia, Squash, Corn etc.

2) BISEXUAL OR HERMAPHRODITE TYPE OF FLOWER

The flower which bears both the reproductive organs i.e., androecium and gynoecium is called bisexual or hermaphrodite flower

e.g. Lily, Rose, Sunflower, Binrjal, Mustard, Tomato, Hibiscus etc.

TYPES OF FLOWERS ACCORDING TO WHORLS :-

  • 1)Achlamydeous: the flower without the accessory whorls(Calyx and corolla) is said to be naked or Achlamydeous. E.g.- Betel
  • 2) Monochlamydeous: A flower having only one whorl is known as Monochlamydeous. E.g. Polygonum
  • 3) Dichlamydeous: the flower which has both the whorls is called Dichlamydeous. E.g. Rose

Types of Flowers according to internodal elongation :-

1)Anthophore: Flower formed due to the internodal elongation between Calyx and corolla. E.g. Silence
2)Androphore: Flower formed due to internodal elongation between the Corolla and androecium. E.g. Passionflower etc.

3) Gynophore: Flower formed due to internodal elongation between androecium and gynoecium. E.g. Pterospermum, DruNatick etc.

4)Androgynophore: when both androphore and gynophore develops together in one flower. E.g. Gynandropis

Type of Flowers According to the relative position of the calyx, corolla, and androecium Gynoecium :-

  • According to the relative position of the calyx, corolla, and androecium with respect to the Gynoecium, three types flowers are there ; a)hypogynous b)perigynous c)Epigynous
  • A) Hypogynous flower: the flower in which the ovary occupies the highest position on the thalamus and the petals, Sepals, and stamen are successively inserted below the ovary.
  •  The ovary is said to be superior. E.g. Mustard, Brinjal, China Rose, Magnolia etc.
  • B) Perigynous Flower: the flowering in which the margin of the thalamus grows upward to form a cup-shaped structure called Calyx tube, enclosing the ovary but remaining free from it, and carrying with it the Sepals, petals and stamens
  • The ovary is said to be half inferior.

     In some Perigynous flowers, the ovary may be partially sunken in the thalamus. E.g. Rose, Promise, Peach, Plum etc.

  • 3) Epigynous Flower: the Flower in which the margin of the thalamus grows further upward completely closing the ovary and getting fused with it,  and bears the sepals, petals and stamens above the ovary.

    In this case, the ovary is said to be inferior. 

    E.g. Sunflower, Guava, Cucumber, Apple, Pear etc.

TYPES OF FLOWERS ON THE BASIS OF WHORLS

Definition of Plant

  • Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of Kingdom Plantae.
  • The term “plant” generally implies the possession of the following traits: multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose, and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts.
  • According to the seed-bearing habit plants are classified as follows:

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS ACCORDING TO SEXUALITY

  • The classification of plants according to sexuality is done on the basis of the type of flowers present in that plant.

1)MONOECIOUS PLANT: A plant having both male and female flowers present in the same plant is known as a monoecious plant. E.g. Corn, Banana, Squash, Lily etc.

2)DIOECIOUS PLANT: A plant that bears either male or female flowers is called a dioecious plant. The male and female flowers are present on distinct plants. E.g. Holly, Plum pine, Mastic tree, Hemp etc.

3)ANDROMONOEIOUS PLANT: Plant which bears both hermaphrodite and Staminate flower on the same individual. E.g. Watermelon, Cucumber etc.

4)GYNODIOECIOUS PLANT: A plant that bears both hermaphrodite and Pistillate flower on the same individual. E.g. Muskmelon, Ridge Gourd etc.

5)TRIMONOECIOUS PLANT: A plant that bears male flowers, female flowers and hermaphrodite flowers on the same individual is called the Trimonoecious plant. E.g. Cucumber

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