Ashwagandha Cultivation ppt

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Ashwagandha cultivation ppt

(Ashwagandha Cultivation ppt, Botanical Classification, Medicinal properties, Uses Soil, Climate, Propagation, Nursery raising, Land Preparation, Seed rate, Time of sowing, Method of sowing, Fertilizers, PEST AND DISEASE Management, yield)

Ashwagandha Cultivation ppt

Introduction  of Ashwagandha

  • Ashwagandha in Sanskrit word means “horse’s smell” (ashwa- horse, gandha- smell), probably originating from the odour of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse.
  • It grows as a stout shrub that reaches a height of 170cm.
  • Ashwagandha bears yellow flowers and red fruit, though its
    fruit is berry-like in size and shape.
  • Ashwagandha grows prolifically in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
  • It is also known as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh
  • It is a plant in Solanaceae or the nightshade family.

Botanical Classification of Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha
KINGDOM Plantae
ORDER Solanales
FAMILY Solanaceae
GENUS Withania
SPECIES W.somnifera
BOTANICAL NAME Withania somnifera

ORIGIN
Ashwagandha is native to the Indian subcontinent, specifically the drier areas of India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Characteristics of the Ashwagandha

  • Ashwagandha is an annual to perennial, branched, undershrub to the herb of about 30 cm to 120 cm height, minutely
  • stellate and tomentose branches.
  • Roots are fleshy, tapering, whitish brown.
  • Leaves are ovate and flowers are greenish.
  • The mature fruits are orange-red berries.

Major production areas of Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha is widely grown in dry parts of subtropical regions. Rajasthan, Panjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh are major ashwagandha growing states in India.

Recommended varieties

Variety  Seed yield Source of availability
Jawahar Asgand-20 Dry root yield 5-6 q/ha MAP unit,College of Horticulture , RVSKVV, Mandsaur,MP.
Jawahar Asgand – 134 Dry root yield 6-8 q/ha MAP unit,College of Horticulture , RVSKVV, Mandsaur,MP.
Raj Vijay Ashwagandha-100 Dry root yield 6-7 q/ha MAP unit,College of Horticulture , RVSKVV, Mandsaur,MP.

 

Medicinal properties of Ashwagandha

  • Roots of Ashwagandha are highly acclaimed tonic for the brain and nervous system in Ayurveda. Its usage is recommended in preventive health care. It is considered as “Medhya” which implies its beneficial effects on the brain. Detail investigations, both clinical and experimental, observed that Ashwagandha acts as an antistress and adaptogenic herb. Regular use of Ashwagandha improves stress tolerance, thereby enhancing mental capabilities. It is also known to improve the quality of immune functions.
  • By virtue of these uses, it is often referred to as “Indian Ginseng”.

Uses of Ashwagandha

  • Helps Fight Depression

Ashwagandha might prove useful in reducing depression levels.

  • Increases Muscle Mass

Ashwagandha has been found to be useful in improving muscle mass, body composition & overall strength.

  • Helps reduce Stress & Anxiety

Ashwagandha has been scientifically proven to reduce stress and anxiety. Withania Somnifera helps reduce Cortisol also known as stress hormone which is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress.

  • Enhances Memory

Ashwagandha supplements may improve brain function, memory & reaction times.

  • Controls Diabetes

One of the Ashwagandha benefits is to control diabetes. Ashwagandha stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin which helps lower blood sugar levels and hence control diabetes.

Soil And Climate Requirement of Ashwagandha Cultivation

Soil

  • Ashwagandha grows well in sandy loam soils Or light red soils (slightly basic ) having pH-7.5- 8.
  • Black or heavy soils having good drainage are also suitable for cultivation.

Climate

  • It is grown as a late rainy season (Kharif) crop. The semi-tropical areas receiving 500 to 750 mm rainfall are suitable for their cultivation as rainfed crops.
  • The crop requires a relatively dry season during its growing period. It can tolerate a temperature range of 20°C to 38°C and even low temperature as low as 10°C

Propagation material

  • Ashwagandha seeds do not have dormancy hence, commonly propagated by seeds.
  • For sowing of ashwagandha, use the seeds that were harvested during the previous season and of good quality and free of pests.
  • Seeds should be procured from a reliable source with seed labels with detailed information about the seed.

Nursery raising

  • The nursery bed usually raised from ground level is prepared by thorough mixing with compost and sand.
  • About 5 kg of seeds are  required for planting in 1 hectare of the main field.
  • Nursery is raised in the month of June-July. Seeds are treated in carbendazim to control wilt and seed-borne diseases.

Land Preparation for Ashwagandha Cultivation

  • The soil of the field selected for Ashwagandha cultivation is well pulverized by ploughing or harrowing.
  • Two to three ploughings should be given to bring the soil to the fine tilth stage and this should be done before the rainy season.
  • Supplementing with well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) is beneficial in getting a good yield of the crop.
  • The land is well ploughed and pulverized and brought to a fine tilth.
  • 10 to 20 tonnes of farmyard manure is applied. The field is then levelled.

Seed rate

A seed rate of 10-12 kg is sufficient for the sowing of one hectare.
Sowing should be done at right spacing 25 cm row to row and 10 cm plant to plant spacing in the line sowing method.

Time of sowing

It may be noted that since Ashwagandha is a late Kharif season crop, the time of sowing is decided by date of arrival of monsoon in that area.
Early sowing may be cause seedling mortality due to heavy rains. The optimum time for sowing is 2nd to 3rd week of October.

Seed treatment

Seed should be treated with thiram or dithane M45 (Inofil M45) at the rate of 3 g/kg seed before sowing to protect the seedlings from seed-borne diseases.

Method of sowing

  • A seed rate of 10 to 12 kg per ha is sufficient for the broadcasting method.
  • They can be sown in lines also. The line to line method is preferred as it increases root production and helps in
  • performing intercultural operations smoothly.
  • The seeds are usually sown about 1 to 3 cm deep.
  • Seeds should be covered with light soil in both methods.

Transplanting

  • The seedlings of 25-35 can be transplanted in main the field at the recommended spacing.
  • After the manures are incorporated into the soil, ridges are prepared at 60 cm spacing.
  • Healthy seedlings are planted at 30 cm spacing. In some places, 60 cm x 60 cm or 45 cm x 30 cm spacing is also followed.
  • However, a spacing of 60 cm x 30 cm with a plant population of about 55000 seedlings per hectare is considered optimum

Thinning and weeding

Grown-up seedlings raised by showing by broadcasting method or inline in-furrow should be thinned out by hand 20to30 days after showing the seeds to maintain a plant population of about 30to60 plants per sq.m.

The plant density to be maintained finally may depend on the nature and fertility of the soil.

On marginal soil, the population is maintained high’.If some fertilizer is applied the population should preferably be kept at a lower level.

Generally, two weedings are required to keep the field free from weeds the first within 20-25 days of showing the and the other seeds after 20-25 days of the first weeding.

Manures and Fertilizers For Ashwagandha Cultivation

The crops do not require heavy doses of manures and fertilizers.
It responds well to organic manures and the addition of 10 tonnes FYM/1 tonnes vermicompost per hectare is recommended.

Application of 15 kg of Nitrogen and 15 kg. Phosphorus per hectare is beneficial for higher production.

Water Management of Ashwagandha Cultivation

Excessive rainfall or water is harmful to these crops. Light shower after transplantation ensures the better establishment of seedlings. Life-saving irrigation may be applied if required. Under irrigated conditions,the crop is irrigated once in 10 days.

PLANT PROTECTION OF Ashwagandha Cultivation

Plant Protection Means Of Controlling disease, pests, weeds and plants no major pests are seen in this crop. However, The infestation or insects are seen:-
PLANT PROTECTION TO INSECTS
APHIDS:- It is a small bug that feeds by sucking sap from plants; A Blackfly or Greenfly. They reproduced rapidly and cause extensive damage to plants. To get rid of Aphids combination of   0.5% MALATHION AND 0.1% – 0.3% KELTHANE as a foliar spray at 10-15 days intervals should be done.

 PEST AND DISEASE Management of Ashwagandha Cultivation

  • The early stages (seedling stage) of Withania somnifera are caused by fungus diseases like damping-off fungus, seedling blight, seed rotting, die-back etc.
  • Seed should be treated with thiram or capton (2-4 gm/kg) to reduce the effect of seedling blight and leaf blight. 0.3% phytolone, diethane- 78 or D-45 is also spread on the crop. Leaf curl tobacco and crutches broom disease were also recognized in Withania. These diseases are controlled through spraying of tetra-cyclinehydrochloride at the interval of 15-20 days. Best way to uproot and burn the infected plants. Some insect diseases were also identified on Withania, for controlling insect diseases, 0.5% melathyone mixed with 0.1 – 0.3% kithane can be used as a spray at 10-15 days intervals.

BY METHODS

  • Seedling mortality becomes severe under high temperature and humid conditions. The disease can be minimized by the use of disease-free seeds and by giving seed treatment before showing with Carbofuran at the rate of 2-2.5 kg per hectare. Alternaria leaf blight can successfully be controlled with the spray of Mancozeb 75% WP 1.5kg/ha.
  • >>Bio-pesticides should be prepared from neem, chitrakmool, dhatura and cow urine and sprayed when required. Neem cake can also be applied in the soil to control diseases.
  • >>biological methods (parasites, predators and biopesticides) and
  • >>Mechanical methods (light traps) are preferred for the management of insect pests and diseases in medicinal crops.
  • >>Use of proper cultural methods (companion crops, trap crops, crop rotation, adjusting sowing time and spacing, balanced plant nutrition and timely irrigation).

HARVESTING Of Ashwagandha

  • The plants start flowering and bearing fruits from December onwards. The crop is ready for harvest in January-March at 150 to 180 days after sowing.
  • The maturity of the crop is judged by drying out of leaves and yellow-red berries. The entire plant is uprooted for roots which are separated from aerial parts by cutting the stem 1-2 cm above the crown.
  • The roots are then either cut transversely into small pieces (7 to 10 cm) or dried as it is in the sun. About 650-800 kg roots can be obtained from ha on drying it comes to 350-435 kg. Berries are hand plucked separately. They are dried and crushed to take out the seeds.

When and how to Harvest Ashwagandha
Red-orange berries and drying leaves indicate the maturity of Ashwagandha and this is the harvesting time. This crop is ready for harvesting after 160-180 days of sowing. The whole plant of ashwagandha should be uprooted for roots then separate the aerial parts by cutting the stem 1-2 cm above the crown.

PROCESSING TECHNIQUES OF ASHWAGANDHA CULTIVATION

  • The dried roots, entire or transversely cut into smaller pieces, have to be further cleaned, trimmed and graded.
  • The roots are beaten with a club that removes adhering soil and breaks off the thin, brittle lateral rootlets. Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains on roots are carefully trimmed with the help of a knife.
  • The maturity of the crop is judged when leaves start drying and berries become yellow-red.
  • >>Root size, root and shoot biomass and alkaloid content was found maximum in 180 days crop which should be considered as best harvesting time for ashwagandha. Ashwagandha should be harvested in dry weather and not in rain or in the early morning when there is dew on the ground.
  • >>Harvesting is done by uprooting the whole plant without damaging the roots.
  • >>There should be sufficient moisture in the soil at the time of harvesting for easy uprooting the plants. Weed plants or any inert material should not be harvested with the crop plants

GRADING OF ROOTS

The dried roots are beaten with a club to remove adhering soil and to break off thin, brittle, lateral rootlets. Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains are carefully trimmed with a knife. Root pieces are then sorted out into the following grades.
1) A grade:-Root pieces up to 7 cm in length, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, solid cylindrical with a smooth external surface and pure white from inside.
2) B grade:- Root pieces up to 5 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter, solid, brittle and white from inside.
3) C grade:- Solid root pieces up to 3-4 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter.
4) D grade:-The dried roots are beaten with a club to remove adhering soil and to break off thin, brittle, lateral rootlets. Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains are carefully trimmed with a knife. Root pieces are then sorted out into foThe dried roots are beaten with a club to remove adhering soil and to break off thin, brittle, lateral rootlets. Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains are carefully trimmed with a knife. Root pieces are then sorted out into the following grades.

POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT ASHWAGANDHA

  • Post-harvest processing is usually the most critical stage in determining the end quality of the product.
  • The harvested produce should be prevented from contamination, degradation, and damage at any stage of processing.
  • Transport the harvested plant material to the processing site in a clean vehicle and protect it from heat and rain during transportation.
  • The processing site should be clean and protected from direct sunlight and rain and have access to water.
  • Use a clean surface, preferably a cemented floor or a tarpaulin sheet that is in good condition.
  • The roots are transversely cut into smaller pieces of 7-10 cm to facilitate drying.
  • The berries are harvested separately, dried and threshed to remove the seeds.

Grading of roots

The dried roots are beaten with a club to remove adhering soil and to break off thin, brittle, lateral rootlets. Lateral branches, root crown and stem remains are carefully trimmed with a knife. Root pieces are then sorted out into the following grades.
1) A grade
Root pieces up to 7 cm in length, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, solid cylindrical with a smooth external surface and pure white from inside.
2) B grade
Root pieces up to 5 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter, solid, brittle and white from inside.
3) C grade
Solid root pieces up to 3-4 cm in length, 1 cm or less in diameter.
4) D grade
Small root pieces, semisolid or hollow, very thin, yellowish inside and < 1 cm in diameter.

YIELD OF ASHWAGANDHA

On average, the yield from one hectare of commercial cultivation is approx. 3-5 q/ha of dry roots and 50-75 Kg of seeds.
Maximum Yield can be produced up to 6.5-7.00 q/ha.

Marketing Of Ashwagandha

  • The Neemuch and Mandasaur markets of Madhya Pradesh are popular the world over for Ashwagandha Importers, buyers within the country, processors, traditional practitioners, Ayurvedic and Siddha Drug manufacturers throng these markets for procurement of Ashwagandha roots every year. The domestic demand for Ashwagandha roots as stated earlier is about 7000 tonnes annually As the production is much less (around 1500 tonnes) in India, the internal market itself is highly potential.
  • The sale price of dried roots has been considered at Rs.150-200/kg and seeds have been considered at Rs.150/kg.

Yield attributing /quality characters

  • No. of secondary roots
  • Fibre content
  • Fresh root yield
  • Dry root yield
  • Root length
  • Alkaloid withanine somniferine content (0.13-0.68)
  • Yield-600-700kg of dried roots/ha

Ashwagandha Cost of cultivation

 

Particular Quantity /ha Rate. (rs.)  Total(Rs.) 
Field preparation 2ploughing @2hr/ha

4labour wages

1harrowingcost@ 1hr/ha

1planking @1hr/ha 

600*2*2

250*4

600

600

2400

1000

1200

Sowing cost Ashwagandha seed 10kg/ha

15 labor wages

200

250*15

3950
Nutrient cost FYM-10tonn

Urea-32kg/ha

Ssp-156kg/ha

Mop-66.8kg/ha

6 labor wages

174689

1164

6*250

3527
Irrigation cost 3 irrigation

6 labour 

500*3

250*6

3000
Plant protection cost Pesticide

10 labors

2500

10*250

5000
Harvesting cost 15 labors /ha 15*250 3750
Processing cost 10 labors /ha 10*250 2500
Miscellaneous cost 1673
Grand total 28000

Gross return – 400*600=240000
net return – 240000 – 28000=212000
B:C ratio=7.57

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